Islam thrived during the early dynasty when the Fatimid and the Ayyubid rule establishing Egypt as a major cultural, political and social power in the Islamic world. Thereafter, the Mamluks, known as the military took control of Egypt and established it as a major Islamic power. The arrival Napoleon transformed the political setting following Muhammad Ali becoming the heritable ruler. His rule set Egypt on the path to modernization. Ibn Battuta’s cavalcade reached “Al- Iskandariyah” (Alexandria) in 1326. It is said that the sight was a well-guarded fortress that one could wish for in a way of aggrandizement and embattlement with architectural flawlessness and a radiant opalescence. It is believed to be said that this experience is an inimitable pearl and glorious in surpassing beauty and that ‘Allah’ should protect her. Following visits to other cities through the Nile, he travelled to "Al-Qahirah" (Cairo) now known as mother of cities, the seat of Pharaoh, broad boondocks and fruitful lands, illimitable buildings, unsurpassed in splendor & grandeur. His journey on the Nile is said to have surpass all rivers of the earth in sweetness of taste, breadth of channel & magnitude. Among the other marvels was the Pyramids, their significance and the origin of their construction.